Tropical Pacific Observing Needs to Advance Process Understanding and Representation in Models Workshop
US CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability Program)
A workshop to gather community input on Tropical Pacific Observing needs to advance our understanding of multi-scale ocean-atmosphere coupled processes and to discuss how such observations could help improve satellite retrievals, data assimilation, and climate, forecast, and biogeochemical models.
More info: https://usclivar.org/meetings/tpon-2021
Filter displayed posters (177 keywords)
Butterfly: revealing the oceans’ influence on our weather and climate
Chelle Gentemann, Carol Anne Clayson, Tony Lee, Shannon Brown, Aneesh Subramanian, Aneesh Subramanian, Mark Bourassa, Hyodae Seo, Kelly Lombardo, Sarah Gille, Tom Farrar, Rhys Parfitt, Brian Argrow
Impacts of Precipitation-Evaporation-Salinity Coupling on Upper Ocean Stratification and Momentum Over the Tropical Pacific Prior to Onset of the 2018 El Niño
Shuyi S. Chen and Brandon W. Kerns
On the Rapid Ocean Response to High-Frequency Intense Rainfall
Xiaolin Zhang1 and Allan J. Clarke2
Eutrophication and Acidification problems of the Black Sea
Dr. Kakha NADIRADZE, Mrs. Nana PHIROSMANASHVILI, Ms. Mariam GOGINASHVILI, Ms. Tekla NADIRADZE
How influential is the MJO on ENSO development?
Equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature is one of the drivers of tropical Pacific double ITCZ bias in climate models
Dhrubajyoti Samanta, Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Nathalie F. Goodkin, & Benjamin P. Horton
Samanta, D., Karnauskas, K. B., & Goodkin, N. F. (2019). Tropical Pacific SST and ITCZ biases in climate models: Double trouble for future rainfall projections? Geophysical Research Letters, 46(4), 2242–2252. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL081363
Equatorial convection between Boreal Winter Monsoon with MJO and the interaction of Indo-Western Pacific Ocean over Maritime Continent
Khafid Rizki Pratama
Diurnal Cycle of Tropical Oceanic Mesoscale Cold Pools in Observations and High Resolution Model
Piyush Garg1*, Stephen W. Nesbitt1, Timothy J. Lang2, George Priftis3
Once an observational perspective of tropical oceanic mesoscale cold pool diurnal cycle is obtained, Icosahedral Nonhydrostatic (ICON) model, which is a global high-resolution (2.5 km) cloud resolving model (CRM) from Dynamics of the Atmospheric general circulation Modeled On Non-hydrostatic Domains (DYAMOND) initiative, is used to identify thermal cold pools using virtual temperature anomaly. The model ran from 00 UTC 1 Aug to 23 UTC 10 Aug 2016 using ECMWF initial and boundary conditions. ICON-simulated thermal cold pool climatology for 40-days permitted the synoptic and mesoscale circulations and matched physically with scatterometer-derived GF climatology. Diurnal cycle of ICON-simulated cold pool properties is compared against RapidScat-observed GF and GPM IMERG precipitation diurnal cycle. ICON cold pool and IMERG precipitation miss the secondary afternoon peak in convective activity while successfully observing dominant morning peak corresponding to deep convection.
Cloud Feedback Biases Influence Model Projections of Extreme El Nino
Samantha Stevenson (1), Andrew Wittenberg (2), John Fasullo (3), Sloan Coats (4), Bette Otto-Bliesner (3)
Surface air humidity from autonomous observing systems
Simon de Szoeke, J. Tom Farrar, Steve Jayne
Autonomous satellite and in situ observing systems have emerging capabilities to measure near-surface air temperature and humidity. Present satellite retrievals of surface air temperature and humidity are less accurate than satellite sea surface temperature retrievals. Near-surface humidity retrievals can be improved by sensing radiances at more wavelengths. Developing these retrievals will require in situ surface observations.
Humidity is difficult to measure in marine surface weather. About 150 moored buoy stations, mostly on the equator and western boundary current regions measure surface fluxes accurately. Global ocean evaporation monitoring requires an order of magnitude more observations. Robust sensors deployed in situ on drifting and remotely piloted autonomous platforms; such as surface floats and profiling floats and gliders, Saildrones, and Wave Gliders; could provide these observations at lower cost than moorings. A submersible humidity sensor for Argo floats is proposed that would observe surface air temperature, humidity, and estimate fluxes above contemporaneous ocean profile observations. Uncrewed and diving floats can safely measure near extreme weather conditions such as tropical cyclones.
Multiscale Processes in MJO-induced Warm Pool Eastward Extension and the Onset of 2018 El Niño
Yakelyn R. Jauregui and Shuyi S. Chen
To capture the structure and evolution of multiscale processes over the western-central tropical Pacific warm pool region, this study focuses on a time period that the MJO events and onset of El Nino were observed across a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. We use satellite and in situ observations to describe how consecutive MJO events, which occurred in January-May 2018, influenced the onset of El Niño in August 2018. Observations include TRMM-GPM rainfall, CCMP surface winds, OISST, SMAP surface salinity, and in situ measurements from moorings and ARGO floats. A relatively high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulation is used to better understand the physical processes associated with the MJO-induced WPEE. The coupled model consists of WRF with 12-km of horizontal resolution and 45 vertical levels and HYCOM with 1/12 degree and 42 levels (Kerns and Chen 2021).
The coupled model simulation reproduces the observed MJO events and WPEE from January-August 2018. Analyses from the observations and model simulation provide physical insights into multiscale structure associated with the MJO-induced WPEE, from the mesoscale convective activity affecting the upper-ocean mixing and air-sea interaction processes to large-scale oceanic Kelvin waves and development of barrier layer as well the consequent zonal pressure gradient relaxation leading to the onset of El Niño across time scales from hours to months. The simulation shows that freshwater from precipitation during the MJO resulted in salinity changes, leading to the formation and maintenance of barrier layers, which affect air-sea interaction processes and favors the upper ocean stratification that maintained higher SSTs at the onset of El Niño. We describe how the coupled system evolves from La Niña to the onset of the El Niño, with a focus on the warm pool eastern edge during the transition.
Review of Tropical East Pacific Air-Sea Interface, Ocean and Atmospheric Parameter Spread in Observations, Reanalyses and Coupled Models
Yolande L. Serra and Boris DeWitte
Satellite Study of Correlation of Climate Variability with Air-Sea CO2 exchange to develop Pacific Sea-Level Variability Numerical Forecasting Models (PSLV-NFM) Over Tropical Pacific Oceanic Regions
Dr. Virendra Goswami
Mesoscale Controls on the Equatorial Pacific O2 Balance
Yassir A. Eddebbar (SIO), A. Subramanian (CU Boulder), D. Whitt (NASA), A. Verdy (SIO) M. Mazloff (SIO), M. Long (NCAR), M. Merrifield (SIO)
An overview of iodine chemistry over the Indian and Southern Ocean waters using ship-based observations and modelling
Anoop Mahajan, Swaleha Inamdar, Liselotte Tinel, Qinyi Li, Alba Badia, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Kirpa Ram, Rosie Chance, Lucy Carpenter
Multiyear Statistical Prediction of ENSO Enhanced by the Tropical Pacific Observing System
Desislava Petrova, Joan Ballester, Siem Jan Koopman, Xavier Rodó
Leveraging seawater δ18O values to extract paleosalinity information from coral δ18O records (zoom pw 068399)
Jessica L. Conroy1,2, Diane M. Thompson3, Kristine L. DeLong4, Samantha Stevenson5, Bronwen Konecky6, Nicole K. Murray1, Emilie P. Dassié7, Judson Partin8
Water Isotope Observations as Dynamical Bridge from the Past to the Future
Kim M. Cobb, David Noone, Adriana Bailey, Samantha Stevenson, Gabe Bowen, Jess Conroy, Jesse Nusbaumer, Sylvia Dee, Rice Alyssa Atwood, Bronwen Konecky, Allegra Legrande, Natalie Burls, Ricardo Sanchez, Naoyuki Kurita, Valerie Masson Delmotte, Nerilie Abram, Kei Yoshimura, Camille Risi, Martin Werner
Importance of Moored Buoy Observations towards Monsoon Prediction: A Case Study
Maheswar Pradhan, Ankur Srivastava, Suryachandra A. Rao, Deep Sankar Banerjee, Abhisek Chatterjee, P. A. Francis, O. P. Sreejith, M. Das Gupta & V. S. Prasad
Improving paleo hydroclimate reconstructions with observations of δ18Osw
Sara Sanchez, PAGES Coral Hydro2k
Sensitivity of asymmetric Oxygen Minimum Zones to mixing intensity and biological processes in the tropical Pacific: a model
Xiujun Wang1,2, Kai Wang1, Raghu Murtugudde2, Dongxiao Zhang3
Heatwaves risks and modeling the potential of urban greenspaces in Karachi city
Adnan Arshad1,2, Ristina Siti Sundari3, Huma Qamar4, Muhammad Ashraf5 , Shabnam Pourshirazi6
Available via email or WhatsApp for questions. (+923330621790)
A Different Look at the Double ITCZ Problem
In situ observations of the near-shore atmospheric boundary layer during ATOMIC/EUREC4A from small Uncrewed Aircraft Systems
Gijs de Boer, Janet Intrieri, Radiance Calmer, Steve Borenstein, Christopher Choate, Michael Rhodes, Jonathan Hamilton, Christopher Cox, Brian Argrow, Christopher Fairall
Available via the Slack workspace or through email at firstname.lastname@example.org
Easterly wave contributions to seasonal rainfall over the tropical Americas in observations and a regional climate model
Christian Dominguez, James Done and Cindy Bruyere
Boundary layer scale interaction in the ITCZ: The role of convective cold pools
Eric Skyllingstad, Simon de Szoeke, Carol Anne Clayson, James Edson
A new dataset of rainfall isotopes on the island of O'ahu
Giuseppe Torri, Alison Nugent, Fayçal Lamroui, Zhiming Kuang, Brian Popp
Accurate measurements of surface fluxes to constrain climate model processes
Evaluation of zonal surface wind anomalies by the Tropical Pacific surface wind observing system
Larry W. O’Neill, Carol Anne Clayson, J. Tom Farrar, Tony Lee, Shayne McGregor, and Susan Wijffels
Cold Pools Observed by Uncrewed Surface Vehicles in the Central and Eastern Tropical Pacific
Samantha M. Wills (1), Meghan F. Cronin (2), Dongxiao Zhang (1)
The Relationship between Tropical Precipitation and Precipitable Water in CMIP6 Simulations and Implications for Observations
Samson M. Hagos, Ruby Leung, Oluwayemi A. Garuba, Jian Lu, Bryce Harrop, Min-Seop Ahn and Charlotte Demott
Critical Updraft Quantities in LES Models of Shallow to Deep Convective Transitions
A Global High-resolution Mesoscale Convective System Tracking Database
Zhe Feng, L. Ruby Leung , Nana Liu , Jingyu Wang , Robert A. Houze Jr, Jianfeng Li , Joseph C. Hardin
A study on the Correlation between Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) and Ocean Current patterns in the Waters of the Sunda Strait
Yosafat Donni Haryanto, Niken Astrid Septyar, Adji Syarifah Happy, Nelly Florida Riama
Equatorial ENSO Physics
Allan J. Clarke & Xiaolin Zhang
IRISS: IR In situ Skin & Sub-skin Temperature Measurements from USVs and buoys
Andy Jessup and Elizabeth Thompson
The role of Tropical Instability Waves in modulating water mass transformation
Anna-Lena Deppenmeier, Frank O. Bryan, William S. Kessler, LuAnne Thompson
Using a high resolution ocean model with full heat budget output, we investigate the variability of cross-isothermal velocities and underlying physical processes associated with the seasonal cycle and with the passage of tropical instability waves (weeks). Preliminary analysis shows that periods of high tropical instability wave activity coincide with enhanced water mass transformation in the thermocline. Tropical instability waves cumulatively enhance water mass transformation from cold to warm without a corresponding transformation from warm to cold. We explore the rectification of the tropical instability wave’s impact on water mass transformation, and examine how this contributes to variations associated with the seasonal cycle. We also explore the latitudinal and longitudinal dependence of water mass transformation associated with tropical instability waves, and aim to determine length scales needed to adequately sample these processes.
The need for new observations of near-surface ocean-side interaction processes for physical and chemical flux modeling
C.W. Fairall1, Elizabeth Thompson1, Byron Blomquist1, James Edson2, Andy Jessup3
Ocean mixing in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue
D. B. Whitt, D. A. Cherian, S. Bachman, R. Holmes, R-C. Lien, W. Large
The new results are as follows: 1) by extending the simulation of Cherian et al. over 18 years, we show that ocean mixing is a stronger driver of sea-surface temperature than surface heat fluxes over most of the cold tongue most of the time. 2) We find that the strength of vertical mixing in DCT scales with the vertical shear of the upper-ocean currents and surface wind stress, but turbulent diffusivity is not well correlated with gradient Richardson number as in some parameterizations. 3) We apply the new scaling to show that turbulent carbon fluxes in DCT dominate air-sea carbon fluxes at most latitudes in a hydrographic section across the cold tongue.
The results underscore the need for more extensive measurements of vertical profiles of shear, stratification and turbulence to relate the spatio-temporal structures to the surface forcing across the cold tongue. Ideally, some of these measurements would be made in conjunction with ocean biogeochemical measurements that would facilitate future work to build understanding of the links between ocean mixing, the carbon cycle, and marine ecosystems.
Tropical Instability Waves force deep-cycle turbulence in the cold cusp between 3°N and 5°N
Deepak Cherian, Daniel Whitt, Ryan Holmes, Ren-Chieh Lien, Scott Bachman, William Large
Here we use a primitive equation regional simulation of the cold tongue to show that deep-cycle turbulence may also occur off the equator within TIW cold cusps where the flow is marginally stable. In the cold cusp, pre-existing equatorial zonal shear u_z is enhanced by horizontal vortex stretching near the equator, and subsequently modified by horizontal vortex tilting terms to generate meridional shear v_z off of the equator. Parameterized turbulence in the sheared flow of the cold cusp is triggered daily by the descent of the surface mixing layer associated with the weakening of the stabilizing surface buoyancy flux in the afternoon. Observational evidence for off-equatorial deep-cycle turbulence is restricted to a few CTD casts, which when combined with shear from shipboard ADCP data suggest the presence of marginally stable flow in TIW cold cusps. This study motivates further observational campaigns to characterize the modulation of deep-cycle turbulence by TIWs both on and off the equator.
Mechanism of Interannual Cross-equatorial Overturning Anomalies in the Pacific Ocean- An Investigation using Ocean Reanalysis
Devanarayana Rao Mohan Rao and Neil F. Tandon
Saildrone: Uncrewed Surface Vehicle for surface current and air-sea flux observation
Dongxiao Zhang(1,2), Meghan F. Cronin(2), Samantha Wills(1,2) , Christian Meinig(2), Noah Lawrence-Slava(2), Richard Jenkins(3) and David Peacock(3)
The importance of vertical mixing in the tropical ocean: the need to capture small vertical scales
Kelvin Richards, Andrei Natarov, Yanli Jia, and H. Annamalai
Spatiotemporal characteristics of Indian Ocean rain layers
Kyle Shackelford, Charlotte DeMott, Peter Jan van Leeuwen
The General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) is used to simulate rain layers in the Indian Ocean. GOTM is initialized and calibrated using observations of the upper ocean collected during the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign. The fine-scale vertical resolution of upper ocean observations collected during DYNAMO allow for robust comparisons of modeled and observed stability profiles. Results indicate that the impact of rain layers on upper ocean temperature and salinity profiles is effectively captured by a 1-D ocean model. Spatiotemporal characteristics of equatorial Indian Ocean rain layers are then investigated by forcing a 2-D array of GOTM columns with WRF model output. Future steps focus on investigation of ocean feedback to atmospheric convection through implementation of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model.
Interaction between the TIWs and the Intraseasonal equatorial Kelvin wave in the Pacific
Gabriela Escobar, Julien Boucharel, Boris Dewitte
Impact of the Ocean In-situ Observations on the ECMWF Seasonal Forecasting System
Magdalena A. Balmaseda, Michel Mayer, Retish Senan, Beena Balan Sarojini, Steffen Tiestche, Tim Stockdale, Frederic Vitart, Hao Zuo
The Tropical Pacific Ocean State Estimate (TPOSE) Resource
Ariane Verdy, Matt Mazloff, Bruce Cornuelle
The state estimate is being extended to new products: a higher-resolution (one-sixth degree) model run is forced with adjusted initial conditions and atmospheric forcing from the coarse-resolution hindcasts and is being coupled to a biogeochemical model. This TPOSE resource can provide a background state for giving context to process studies, or the infrastructure could be used to create a high-resolution state estimate utilizing observations taken during a process study.
The 4D-Var method utilizes the adjoint model, which also provides the technology to efficiently compute sensitivities for a wide range of quantities of interest (QoIs) to model properties and inputs. This is an advantage over standard forward modeling sensitivity studies, where it is not feasible to perturb every region of the model that might affect a given QoI. The adjoint sensitivity analysis has been used in the tropical Pacific to quantify the sensitivity of the Nino-3 SST to wind stress, showing the combined effects of different dynamical pathways from wind stress change to SST change: tropical instability waves, Kelvin waves, equatorial Rossby waves, and advection. In the context of process experiments, this can be used to identify the regions where previous forcing or ocean state influences the target region, which in turn can be used to design observing strategies.
Importance of Off-equatorial Subsurface Preconditions for ENSO Evolution and Predictability
Caihong Wen, Arun Kumar, Michelle L’ Heureux, Yan Xue and Emily Becker
Diagnosing Sources of Tropical SST Drift in Coupled Forecast Models
Charlotte DeMott, Aneesh Subramanian, Kris Karnauskas, Ho-Hsuan Wei, Magdalena Balmaseda, Frederic Vitart, and Beena Balan Sarojini
In this study, we diagnose sources of climatological SST drift in five coupled forecast models participating in the international S2S Prediction Project. SST drift that is driven by drift in the net surface energy flux (Qnet) is estimated by the regression relationship between climatological SST and Qnet tendencies as a function of forecast lead time. The residual SST drift (i.e., the part that is uncorrelated with Qnet drift) can be considered as that associated with drift in ocean processes, such as changes in ocean mixed layer depth or shear driven mixing. With this approach, SST drift that is the result of model initialization shock can often be distinguished from systematic drift to a model’s preferred mean state. For the systematic SST drift, our results demonstrate that the relative contributions by Qnet drift and ocean dynamics drift vary widely among models and throughout the tropics.
Effect of Rain-Adjusted Satellite Sea Surface Salinity on ENSO Predictions from the GMAO S2S Forecast System
E. Hackert1, S. Akella1, R. Kovach12, K. Nakada12, A. Borovikov12, A. Molod1, K. Drushka3, and M. Jacob4
For expediency, most projects that assimilate SSS, do so as if these data were observed at the top model layer (typically 5 m) instead of at the surface (i.e., top 1 cm), where the satellite measures SSS. In rainy regions, where buoyant water sits as a fresh lens at the surface following rainfall , this assumption is likely invalid. Therefore, we adjust SSS so that it more accurately represents the salinity at 5 m. The Rain Impact Model (RIM – Santos-Garcia et al., 2014) uses a simple diffusion model (Asher et al., 2014) to determine the near surface salinity gradient (i.e., 1 cm to 5 m). The Aquarius (V5) satellite SSS data are modified using the RIM near-surface salinity gradient, so the salinity values are now valid at 5 m (we call this AQUARIUS_RIM).
We assess the impact of satellite SSS observations for near-surface dynamics within ocean reanalyses and how these impact dynamical ENSO forecasts, using the NASA GMAO Sub-seasonal to Seasonal coupled forecast system (S2S-v3, Molod et al., 2020). For all reanalysis experiments, all available along-track absolute dynamic topography and in situ observations are assimilated using the LETKF scheme (Penny et al., 2013). One reanalysis assimilates satellite SSS data as if it were 5 m data (as before). An additional reanalysis is performed assimilating the AQUARIUS_RIM data that represents the bulk salinity at 5 m.
Validation statistics are compared for experiments that assimilate SSS (sub-optimally as before) versus the AQUARIUS_RIM. AQUARIUS_RIM minus AQUARIUS reanalyses show a salting near the equator leading to a shoaling of the mixed layer depth (MLD) and a relative equatorial westerly wind anomaly. Shallower MLD and westerly wind anomaly both would lead to amplification of the downwelling Kelvin wave associated with the 2015 El Niño. Coupled forecasts that are initialized from these reanalyses show that improved SSS estimates upgrade density and near-surface mixing, leading to more accurate coupled air/sea interaction and better ENSO forecasts.
OSSE studies for the Tropical Pacific Observing System
Jieshun Zhu1, Arun Kumar1, Guillaume Vernieres2, Travis Sluka2
Evaluation of a coupled atmosphere-ocean reanalysis using the tropical Pacific mooring data
Yosuke Fujii, Chiaki Kobayashi, Ichiro Ishikawa, Yuhei Takaya
In situ and satellite flux observations in the tropical Pacific
Carol Anne Clayson, James B. Edson, Chelle Gentemann, Tony Lee, Aneesh Subramanian, Susan Wijffels
Estimating Surface Flux Bias Feedbacks to the Intra-seasonal Precipitation in the CESM2 and E3SM
Chia-Wei Hsu1, Charlotte DeMott1, Steven J. Woolnough2
In this study, we use in-situ data from TAO/TRITON to create a location-based latent heat flux matrix determined by specific humidity deficiency at the surface layer (dQ) and surface wind speed (sfcWind). By comparing latent heat fluxes within this matrix for observations and models/reanalysis (E3SM, CESM2, and ERA5) that typically use bulk algorithms that predate COARE3.0, we can quantify the latent heat flux biases in the model/reanalysis under different dQ and sfcWind values. The latent heat flux biases with respect to the COARE algorithm demonstrate dependence on both sfcWind and dQ. An offline latent heat flux correction based on the in-situ data is applied to model simulations based on the corresponding dQ and sfcWind values. The correction in E3SM surface fluxes leads to a statistically significant 20% reduction in the latent heat flux contribution to intra-seasonal precipitation, and brings the model estimate in better agreement with the observed contribution shown by Bui et al.,  over the western tropical Pacific.
Predicting and detecting surface ocean stable layers due to rain and diurnal warming
Elizabeth J. Thompson 1, James N. Moum 2, Chris W. Fairall 1, Steven A. Rutledge 3
Diurnal warm layers (DWLs) formed by solar heating populated 30% of the data set and rain layers (RLs) populated 16%. Combined contributions from rain and insolation formed RL-DWLs in 9% of the data set. RLs were detected at values of U up to 9.8 m/s, while DWLs were only detected at U10 < 7.6 m/s (99th percentile values), symptomatic of the greater buoyancy flux provided by moderate to high rain rate compared to insolation. From the ocean friction velocity, u*w, and surface buoyancy flux, B, we derived estimates of hS', stable layer depth, and Ub', the maximum U10 for which stratification should persist at hS' for fixed B. These estimates predicted (1) 36 out of 44 observed stratification events (88% success rate) and (2) the wind limits of these events, which are considered to be the 99th percentile values of U10. This suggests a means to determine the presence of ocean stable layers at depths ≤ 5 m from surface data: U10 and B.
Near-surface stratification varied throughout two Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) cycles. In suppressed MJO periods, (U10 ≤ 8 m s1 with strong insolation), RLs and RL-DWLs were rare while DWLs occurred daily. During disturbed and active MJO periods, (U10 ≤ 8 m s1 with increased rain and cloudiness), multiple RLs and RL-DWLs formed per day and DWLs became less common. When westerly wind bursts occurred, (U10 = 7–17 m s1 with steady rain), RLs formed infrequently and DWLs were not detected.
Intraseasonal variability in precipitation and fluxes across the tropics observed by buoys and CYGNSS
Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric Maloney, Hien Bui, and Bohar Singh
Connecting the thermocline with the surface in the eastern equatorial Pacific
Frank Bryan, Billy Kessler, Anna-Lena Deppenmeier, Luanne Thompson
Sea Surface Salinity Short Term Variability in the Tropics from Mooring Data
Bingham, Frederick M. and Susannah Brodnitz
Tropical Pacific Air-Sea Interaction: Processes and Biases Relevant to ENSO and Strong Wind Events
Ho-Hsuan Wei (1), Aneesh Subramanian (1), Kristopher Karnauskas (2), Charlotte DeMott (3), Matthew Mazloff (4), Magdalena Balmaseda (5), Frederic Vitart (5), and Beena Sarojini (5)
Atmospheric response to abrupt ocean fronts from Saildrone direct covariance measurements
Jack Reeves Eyre, Meghan Cronin, Dongxiao Zhang
NCAR’s Integrated Surface Flux System (ISFS): A campaign driven micronet supporting atmospheric boundary layer research
Jacquie Witte, Steve Oncley, Kurt Knudson, Dan Buonome, Isabel Suhr, Matthew Paulus, Chris Roden
ISFS URL: https://www.eol.ucar.edu/observing_facilities/isfs
ISS (Integrated Sounding System) URL: https://www.eol.ucar.edu/observing_facilities/iss
Dropsondes URL: https://www.eol.ucar.edu/node/10082
Diurnal Cycle of Air-Sea Interactions in Frontal Regions
Meghan F. Cronin^1, Dongxiao Zhang^2, Jack Reeves Eyre^2, and Samantha Wills^2
Small-scale variations in wave slope and momentum flux from wave-current interactions
Suneil Iyer, Jim Thomson, Kyla Drushka, Elizabeth Thompson